Making stock acid and base solutions (molarities and specific gravities of concentrated acids and bases)

When preparing acid solutions, use deionized or distilled water, and prepare these reagents in a chemical hood using appropriate protective gear. Always add acid to water. Discard any reagent that shows evidence of contamination, precipitation, or discoloration.

Molecular weight
% by weight
Molarity (approximate)
Specific gravity
1 M solution
Acetic acid (glacial)60.0599.617.41.0557.5
Ammonium hydroxide35.02814.80.9067.6
Formic acid46.039023.61.20542.4
Hydrochloric acid36.469825.91.2238.5
Nitric acid63.013611.61.1885.9
Perchloric acid100.467015.71.4263.7
Phosphoric acid98.00609.21.54108.8
Sulfuric acid98.077212.21.7082.1

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