Making stock acid and base solutions (molarities and specific gravities of concentrated acids and bases)

When preparing acid solutions, use deionized or distilled water, and prepare these reagents in a chemical hood using appropriate protective gear. Always add acid to water. Discard any reagent that shows evidence of contamination, precipitation, or discoloration.

Acid/base
Molecular weight
% by weight
Molarity (approximate)
Specific gravity
1 M solution
(ml/liter)
Acetic acid (glacial) 60.05 99.6 17.4 1.05 57.5
Ammonium hydroxide 35.0 28 14.8 0.90 67.6
Formic acid 46.03 90 23.6 1.205 42.4
Hydrochloric acid 36.46 98 25.9 1.22 38.5
Nitric acid 63.01 36 11.6 1.18 85.9
Perchloric acid 100.46 70 15.7 1.42 63.7
Phosphoric acid 98.00 60 9.2 1.54 108.8
Sulfuric acid 98.07 72 12.2 1.70 82.1

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